The Heidelberg Catechism

Lord's Day 1 - Question and Answer 1

Question: What is your only comfort in life and death?

Answer: That I am not my own1, but belong with body and soul, both in life and in death2, to my faithful Saviour Jesus Christ3. He has fully paid for all my sins with His precious blood4, and has set me free from all the power of the devil5. He also preserves me6 in such a way that without the will of my heavenly Father not a hair can fall from my head7; indeed, all things must work together for my salvation8. Therefore, by His Holy Spirit He also assures me of eternal life9 and makes me heartily willing and ready from now on to live for Him10.

  1. 1 Corinthians 6:19.
  2. Romans 14:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:9-10.
  3. 1 Corinthians 3:23; Titus 2:14.
  4. 1 Peter 1:18-19; 1 John 1:7; 1 John 2:2; 1 John 2:12.
  5. John 8:34-36; 1 John 3:8; Hebrews 2:14.
  6. John 6:39; John 10:27-30; 2 Thessalonians 3:3; 1 Peter 1:5.
  7. Matthew 10:30; Luke 21:18.
  8. Romans 8:28.
  9. Romans 8:16; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 1:13-14.
  10. Romans 8:14; 1 John 3:3.

Lord's day 1 - Question and answer 2

Question: What do you need to know in order to live and die in the joy of this comfort?

Answer: Three realities1: First, how great my sins and misery are2; second, how I am delivered from all my sins and misery3; third, how I am to be thankful to God for such deliverance4.

  1. Matthew 11:28-30; Ephesians 5:8.
  2. Matthew 9:12; John 9:41; Romans 3:10; 1 John 1:9-10.
  3. Luke 24:46-47; John 17:3; Acts 4:12; Acts 10:43; 1 Corinthians 6:11; Titus 3:3-7.
  4. Psalms 50:14-15; Psalms 116:12-13; Matthew 5:16; Romans 6:12-13; Ephesians 5:10; 2 Timothy 2:15; 1 Peter 2:9; 1 Peter 2:12.

Lord's day: 2 - Question and Answer 3

Question: From where do you know your sins and misery?

Answer: From the law of God1.

  1. Romans 3:20

Lord's day: 2 - Question and Answer 4

Question: What does God’s law require of us?

Answer: Christ teaches us this in a summary in Matthew 22: " Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: Love your neighbour as yourself. All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments1."

  1. Leviticus 19:18; Deuteronomy 6:5; Matthew 22:37-40; Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27.

Lord's day: 2 - Question and Answer 5

Question: Can you keep all this perfectly?

Answer: No1, I am inclined by nature to hate God and my neighbour2.

  1. Romans 3:10; Romans 3:20; Romans 3:23; 1 John 1:8; 1 John 1:10.
  2. Genesis 6:5; Genesis 8:21; Jeremiah 17:9; Romans 7:23; Romans 8:7; Ephesians 2:3; Titus 3:3.

Lord's day: 3 - Question and Answer 6

Question: Did God, then, create man so wicked and perverse?

Answer: No, on the contrary, God created man good1 and in His image2, that is, in true righteousness and holiness, so that he might rightly know God his Creator, heartily love Him, and live with Him in eternal blessedness to praise and glorify Him3.

  1. Genesis 1:31.
  2. Genesis 1:26-27.
  3. 2 Corinthians 3:18; Ephesians 4:24; Colossians 3:10.

Lord's day: 3 - Question and Answer 7

Question: From where, then, did man’s depraved nature come?

Answer: From the fall and disobedience of our first parents, Adam and Eve, in Paradise1, for there our nature became so corrupt that we are all conceived and born in sin2.

  1. Genesis 3; Romans 5:12; Romans 5:18-19.
  2. Genesis 5:3; Psalms 51:7.

Lord's day: 3 - Question and Answer 8

Question: But are we so corrupt that we are totally unable to do any good and inclined to all evil?

Answer: Yes1, unless we are regenerated by the Spirit of God2.

  1. Genesis 6:5; Genesis 8:21; Job 14:4; Job 15:14; Job 15:16; Job 15:35; Isaiah 53:6; John 3:6; Titus 3:3.
  2. John 3:3; John 3:5; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 2 Corinthians 3:5.

Lord's day: 4 - Question and Answer 9

Question: But does not God do man an injustice by requiring in His law what man cannot do?

Answer: No1, for God so created man that he was able to do it2. But man, at the instigation of the devil, in deliberate disobedience3 robbed himself and all his descendants of these gifts.

  1. Genesis 1:26-27; Ephesians 4:24.
  2. Genesis 3:13; 1 Timothy 2:13-14.
  3. Genesis 3:4-6; Romans 5:12.

Lord's day: 4 - Question and Answer 10

Question: Will God allow such disobedience and apostasy to go unpunished?

Answer: Certainly not. He is terribly displeased1 with our original sin as well as our actual sins. Therefore He will punish them by a just judgment both now and eternally2, as He has declared: " Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the Book of the Law." 3

  1. Genesis 2:17; Romans 5:12.
  2. Exodus 20:5; Exodus 34:7; Psalms 5:6; Psalms 50:21; Nahum 1:2; Romans 1:18; Ephesians 5:6; Hebrews 9:27.
  3. Deuteronomy 27:26; Galatians 3:10.

Lord's day: 4 - Question and Answer 11

Question: But is God not also merciful?

Answer: God is indeed merciful1, but He is also just2. His justice requires that sin committed against the most high majesty of God also be punished with the most severe, that is, with everlasting, punishment of body and soul.

  1. Exodus 34:6-7; Exodus 20:6.
  2. Exodus 20:5; Exodus 23:7; Exodus 34:7; Psalms 5:5-6; Psalms 7:10; Nahum 1:2-3.

Lord's day: 5 - Question and Answer 12

Question: Since, according to God’s righteous judgment we deserve temporal and eternal punishment, how can we escape this punishment and be again received into favour?

Answer: God demands that His justice be satisfied1. Therefore we must make full payment, either by ourselves or through another2.

  1. Genesis 2:7; Exodus 20:5; Exodus 23:7; Ezekiel 18:4; Luke 16:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:6.
  2. Matthew 5:26; Romans 8:3-4.

Lord's day: 5 - Question and Answer 13

Question: Can we by ourselves make this payment?

Answer: Certainly not. On the contrary, we daily increase our debt1.

  1. Job 4:18-19; Job 9:2; Job 15:15-16; Psalms 130:3; Matthew 6:12; Matthew 16:26; Matthew 18:25.

Lord's day: 5 - Question and Answer 14

Question: Can any mere creature pay for us?

Answer: No. In the first place, God will not punish another creature for the sin which man has committed1. Furthermore, no mere creature can sustain the burden of God’s eternal wrath against sin and deliver others from it2.

  1. Genesis 3:17; Ezekiel 18:4.
  2. Psalms 130:3; Nahum 1:6.

Lord's day: 5 - Question and Answer 15

Question: What kind of mediator and deliverer must we seek?

Answer: One who is a true1 and righteous2 man, and yet more powerful than all creatures; that is, one who is at the same time true God3.

  1. 1 Corinthians 15:21.
  2. Hebrews 7:26.
  3. Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:5; Jeremiah 23:6; Luke 11:22; Romans 8:3-4.

Lord's day: 5 - Question and Answer 16

Question: Why must He be a true and righteous man?

Answer: He must be a true man because the justice of God requires that the same human nature which has sinned should pay for sin1. He must be a righteous man because one who himself is a sinner cannot pay for others2.

  1. Isaiah 53:4-5; Jeremiah 33:15; Ezekiel 18:4; Ezekiel 18:20; Romans 5:18; 1 Corinthians 15:21; Hebrews 2:14-16.
  2. Psalms 49:8; Hebrews 7:26-27; 1 Peter 3:18.

Lord's day: 6 - Question and Answer 17

Question: Why must He at the same time be true God?

Answer: He must be true God so that by the power of His divine nature1 He might bear in His human nature2 the burden of God’s wrath3, and might obtain for us and restore to us righteousness and life4.

  1. Isaiah 9:5; Isaiah 63:3; Romans 1:4; Hebrews 1:3.
  2. Isaiah 53:4; Isaiah 53:11.
  3. Deuteronomy 4:24; Psalms 130:3; Nahum 1:6.
  4. Isaiah 53:5; Isaiah 53:11; Isaiah 54:8; John 3:16; Acts 20:28; 1 Peter 3:18.

Lord's day: 6 - Question and Answer 18

Question: But who is that Mediator who at the same time is true God1 and a true2 and righteous man3?

Answer: Our Lord Jesus Christ4, whom God made our wisdom, our righteousness and sanctification and redemption5.

  1. Isaiah 9:6; Jeremiah 23:6; Malachi 3:1; Romans 8:3; Romans 9:5; Galatians 4:4; 1 John 5:20.
  2. Luke 1:42; Luke 2:6-7; Romans 1:3; Romans 9:5; Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 2:16-17; Hebrews 4:15.
  3. Isaiah 53:9; Isaiah 53:11; Jeremiah 23:5; Luke 1:35; John 8:46; Hebrews 4:15; Hebrews 7:26; 1 Peter 1:19; 1 Peter 2:22; 1 Peter 3:18.
  4. Matthew 1:23; Luke 2:11; John 1:1; John 1:14; John 1:18; John 14:6; Romans 9:5; 1 Timothy 2:5; 1 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 2:9.
  5. 1 Corinthians 1:30; 2 Corinthians 5:21.

Lord's day: 6 - Question and Answer 19

Question: From where do you know this?

Answer: From the holy gospel, which God Himself first revealed in Paradise1. Later, He had it proclaimed by the patriarchs2 and prophets3, and foreshadowed by the sacrifices and other ceremonies of the law4. Finally, He had it fulfilled through His only Son5.

  1. Genesis 3:15.
  2. Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:18; Genesis 26:4; Genesis 49:10.
  3. Isaiah 42:1-4; Isaiah 43:25; Isaiah 49:5-6; Isaiah 49:22; Isaiah 53; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Jeremiah 31:3233; Jeremiah 32:39-41; Micah 7:18-20; John 5:46; Acts 3:22-24; Acts 10:43; Romans 1:2; Hebrews 1:1. -
  4. Colossians 2:7; Hebrews 10:1; Hebrews 10:7.
  5. Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:24; Galatians 4:4-5; Colossians 2:17.

Lord's day: 7 - Question and Answer 20

Question: Are all men, then, saved by Christ just as they perished through Adam?

Answer: No1. Only those are saved who by a true faith are grafted into Christ and accept all His benefits2.

  1. Matthew 7:14; Matthew 22:14.
  2. Psalms 2:12; Isaiah 53:11; Mark 16:16; John 1:12-13; John 3:16; John 3:18; John 3:36; Romans 3:22; Romans 11:20; Hebrews 4:2-3; Hebrews 5:9; Hebrews 10:39; Hebrews 11:6.

Lord's day: 7 - Question and Answer 21

Question: What is true faith?

Answer: True faith is a sure knowledge whereby I accept as true all that God has revealed to us in His Word1. At the same time it is a firm confidence2 that not only to others, but also to me3, God has granted forgiveness of sins, everlasting righteousness, and salvation4, out of mere grace, only for the sake of Christ's merits5. This faith the Holy Spirit works in my heart by the gospel6.

  1. 1 Samuel 2:3; Job 36:3-4; Psalms 119:66; Proverbs 2:1-9; Proverbs 8:10; 2 Corinthians 2:14;.
  2. Psalms 9:11; Romans 4:18-21; Romans 10:10; Ephesians 3:12; Hebrews 4:16; Hebrews 11:1; Hebrews 11:7; James 1:6.
  3. Acts 10:44; Acts 16:14; Romans 1:16; Romans 10:17; 1 Corinthians 1:21.
  4. Habakkuk 2:4; Romans 1:17; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:10; Hebrews 10:38.
  5. Luke 1:77-78; Acts 10:43; Romans 3:24; Romans 5:19; Ephesians 2:8.
  6. Matthew 16:17; John 3:5; John 6:29; Acts 16:14; 2 Corinthians 4:13; Galatians 5:22; Ephesians 2:8; Philippians 1:19.

Lord's day: 7 - Question and Answer 22

Question: What, then, must a Christian believe?

Answer: All that is promised us in the gospel1, which the articles of our catholic and undoubted Christian faith teach us in a summary.

  1. Matthew 28:19; Mark 1:15; John 20:31.

Lord's day: 7 - Question and Answer 23

Question: What are these articles?


  1. I believe in God the Father almighty, Creator of heaven and earth.

  2. I believe in Jesus Christ, His only begotten Son, our Lord;

  3. He was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the virgin Mary;

  4. suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried. He endured the suffering of hell*.

  5. On the third day He arose from the dead;

  6. He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father almighty;

  7. from there He will come to judge the living and the dead.

  8. I believe in the Holy Spirit;

  9. I believe a holy catholic Christian church, the communion of saints;

  10. the forgiveness of sins;

  11. the resurrection of the body;

  12. and the life everlasting.

  13. *Literally: He descended into hell

    Lord's day: 8 - Question and Answer 24

    Question: How are these articles divided?

    Answer: Into three parts: the first is about God the Father and our creation; the second about God the Son and our redemption; the third about God the Holy Spirit and our sanctification.

    Lord's day: 8 - Question and Answer 25

    Question: Since there is only one God, why do you speak of three persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit? 1

    Answer: Because God has so revealed Himself in His Word2 that these three distinct persons are the one, true, eternal God.

    1. Deuteronomy 6:4; Isaiah 44:6; Isaiah 45:5; 1 Corinthians 8:4-6; Ephesians 4:4-6.
    2. Genesis 1:2-3; Psalms 33:6; Isaiah 6:1; Isaiah 6:3; Isaiah 48:16; Isaiah 6:1; Matthew 3:16-17; Matthew 28:19; Luke 4:18; John 14:26; John 15:26; 2 Corinthians 13:13; Galatians 4:6; Ephesians 2:18; Titus 3:5-6; 1 John 5:7-8.

    Lord's day: 9 - Question and Answer 26

    Question: What do you believe when you say: I believe in God the Father almighty, Creator of heaven and earth?

    Answer: That the eternal Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who out of nothing created heaven and earth and all that is in them1, and who still upholds and governs them by His eternal counsel and providence2, is, for the sake of Christ His Son, my God and my Father3. In Him I trust so completely as to have no doubt that He will provide me with all things necessary for body and soul4, and will also turn to my good whatever adversity He sends me in this life of sorrow5. He is able to do so as almighty God6, and willing also as a faithful Father7.

    1. Genesis 1:1; Genesis 2:3; Exodus 20:11; Job 33:4; Job 38, 39; Psalms 33:6; Isaiah 40:26; Isaiah 45:7; Acts 4:24; Acts 14:15.
    2. Psalms 104:27-30; Psalms 115:3; Matthew 10:29-30; Romans 11:36; Ephesians 1:11; Hebrews 1:3.
    3. John 1:12; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:5-7; Ephesians 1:5.
    4. Psalms 55:23; Matthew 6:25-26; Luke 12:22-24.
    5. Romans 8:28.
    6. Isaiah 46:4; Romans 8:37-39; Romans 10:12.
    7. Matthew 6:32-33; Matthew 7:9-11.

    Lord's day: 10 - Question and Answer 27

    Question: What do you understand by the providence of God?

    Answer: God's providence is His almighty and ever present power1, whereby, as with His hand, He still upholds heaven and earth and all creatures2, and so governs them that leaf and blade, rain and drought, fruitful and barren years3, food and drink, health and sickness4, riches and poverty5, indeed, all things, come not by chance but by His fatherly hand6.

    1. Isaiah 29:15-16; Jeremiah 23:23-24; Ezekiel 8:12; Acts 17:25-28.
    2. Hebrews 1:3.
    3. Jeremiah 5:24; Acts 14:17.
    4. John 9:3.
    5. Proverbs 22:2.
    6. Proverbs 16:33; Matthew 10:29.

    Lord's day: 10 - Question and Answer 28

    Question: What does it benefit us to know that God has created all things and still upholds them by His providence?

    Answer: We can be patient in adversity1, thankful in prosperity2, and with a view to the future we can have a firm confidence in our faithful God and Father3 that no creature shall separate us from His love4; for all creatures are so completely in His hand that without His will they cannot so much as move5.

    1. Job 1:21-22; Psalms 39:10; Romans 5:3; James 1:3.
    2. Deuteronomy 8:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:18.
    3. Psalms 55:23; Romans 5:4.
    4. Romans 8:38-39.
    5. Job 1:12; Job 2:6; Proverbs 21:1; Acts 17:25-28.

    Lord's day: 11 - Question and Answer 29

    Question: Why is the Son of God called Jesus, that is, Saviour?

    Answer: Because He saves us from all our sins1, and because salvation is not to be sought or found in anyone else2.

    1. Matthew 1:21; Hebrews 7:25.
    2. Isaiah 43:11; John 15:4-5; Acts 4:12; 1 Timothy 2:5; 1 John 5:11-12.

    Lord's day: 11 - Question and Answer 30

    Question: Do those believe in the only Saviour Jesus who seek their salvation and well-being from saints, in themselves, or anywhere else?

    Answer: No. Though they boast of Him in words, they in fact deny the only Saviour Jesus1. For one of two things must be true: either Jesus is not a complete Saviour, or those who by true faith accept this Saviour must find in Him all that is necessary for their salvation2.

    1. 1 Corinthians 1:13; 1 Corinthians 1:30-31; Galatians 5:4.
    2. Isaiah 9:6; Colossians 1:19-20; Colossians 2:10; Hebrews 12:2; 1 John 1:7.

    Lord's day: 12 - Question and Answer 31

    Question: Why is He called Christ, that is, Anointed?

    Answer: Because He has been ordained by God the Father, and anointed with the Holy Spirit1, to be our chief Prophet and Teacher2, who has fully revealed to us the secret counsel and will of God concerning our redemption3; our only High Priest4, who by the one sacrifice of His body has redeemed us5, and who continually intercedes for us before the Father6; and our eternal King, who governs us by His Word and Spirit, and who defends and preserves us in the redemption obtained for us7.

    1. Psalms 45:8; Isaiah 61:1; Luke 4:18; Acts 10:38; Hebrews 1:9.
    2. Deuteronomy 18:15; Isaiah 55:4; Acts 26:22; Acts 7:37.
    3. John 1:18; John 15:15; Acts 3:22.
    4. Psalms 110:4; Hebrews 7:21.
    5. Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 9:28; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 10:14.
    6. Romans 5:9-10; Romans 8:34; Hebrews 9:24; 1 John 2:1.
    7. Psalms 2:6; Zechariah 9:9; Matthew 21:5; Matthew 28:18; Luke 1:33; John 10:28; Revelation 12:10-11.

    Lord's day: 12 - Question and Answer 32

    Question: Why are you called a Christian?1

    Answer: Because I am a member of Christ by faith2 and thus share in His anointing3, so that I may as prophet confess His Name4, as priest present myself a living sacrifice of thankfulness to Him5, and as king fight with a free and good conscience against sin and the devil in this life6, and hereafter reign with Him eternally over all creatures7.

    1. Acts 11:26.
    2. 1 Corinthians 6:15.
    3. Acts 2:17; 1 John 2:27.
    4. Matthew 10:32; Romans 10:10.
    5. Romans 12:1; 1 Peter 2:5; 1 Peter 2:9; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 5:10.
    6. Romans 6:12-13; Galatians 5:16-17; Ephesians 6:11; 1 Timothy 1:18-19; 1 Peter 2:11.
    7. Matthew 25:34; 2 Timothy 2:12; Revelation 22:5.

    Lord's day: 13 - Question and Answer 33

    Question: Why is He called God's only begotten Son, since we also are children of God?

    Answer: Because Christ alone is the eternal, natural Son of God1. We, however, are children of God by adoption, through grace, for Christ's sake2.

    1. John 1:14; John 1:18; John 3:16; Romans 8:32; Hebrews 1:1-2; 1 John 4:9.
    2. John 1:12-13; Romans 8:15-17; Galatians 4:6; Ephesians 1:5-6.

    Lord's day: 13 - Question and Answer 34

    Question: Why do you call Him our Lord?

    Answer: Because He has ransomed us, body and soul, from all our sins, not with silver or gold but with His precious blood, and has freed us from all the power of the devil to make us His own possession1.

    1. John 20:28; 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23; 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Peter 1:18-19; 1 Peter 2:9.

    Lord's day: 14 - Question and Answer 35

    Question: What do you confess when you say: He was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the virgin Mary?

    Answer: The eternal Son of God, who is1 and remains true and eternal God2, took upon Himself true human nature from the flesh and blood of the virgin Mary3, through the working of the Holy Spirit4. Thus He is also the true seed of David5, and like His brothers in every respect6, yet without sin7.

    1. John 1:1; John 17:3; Romans 1:3; Colossians 1:15; 1 John 5:20.
    2. Romans 9:5.
    3. Luke 1:31; Luke 1:42-43; Galatians 4:4.
    4. Matthew 1:18; Matthew 1:20; Luke 1:35.
    5. 2 Samuel 7:12; Psalms 132:11; Matthew 1:1; Luke 1:32; Acts 2:30; Romans 1:3.
    6. Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 2:17.
    7. Hebrews 4:15; Hebrews 7:26-27.

    Lord's day: 14 - Question and Answer 36

    Question: What benefit do you receive from the holy conception and birth of Christ?

    Answer: He is our Mediator1, and with His innocence and perfect holiness covers, in the sight of God, my sin, in which I was conceived and born2.

    1. Hebrews 2:16-18; Hebrews 7:26-27.
    2. Psalms 32:1; Isaiah 53:11; Romans 8:3-4; 1 Corinthians 1:30-31; Galatians 4:4-5; 1 Peter 1:18-19; 1 Peter 3:18.

    Lord's day: 15 - Question and Answer 37

    Question: What do you confess when you say that He suffered?

    Answer: During all the time He lived on earth, but especially at the end, Christ bore in body and soul the wrath of God against the sin of the whole human race1. Thus, by His suffering, as the only atoning sacrifice2, He has redeemed our body and soul from everlasting damnation3, and obtained for us the grace of God, righteousness, and eternal life4.

    1. Isaiah 53:4; Isaiah 53:12; 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Peter 2:24; 1 Peter 3:18.
    2. Isaiah 53:10; Romans 3:25; 1 Corinthians 5:7; Ephesians 5:2; Hebrews 9:28; Hebrews 10:14; 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10.
    3. Galatians 3:13; Colossians 1:13; Hebrews 9:12; 1 Peter 1:18-19.
    4. John 3:16; John 6:51; Romans 3:25; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 10:19.

    Lord's day: 15 - Question and Answer 38

    Question: Why did He suffer under Pontius Pilate as judge?

    Answer: Though innocent, Christ was condemned by an earthly judge1, and so He freed us from the severe judgment of God that was to fall on us2.

    1. Matthew 27:24; Luke 23:14-15; John 18:38; John 19:4; John 19:11.
    2. Psalms 69:5; Isaiah 53:4-5; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 3:13.

    Lord's day: 15 - Question and Answer 39

    Question: Does it have a special meaning that Christ was crucified and did not die in a different way?

    Answer: Yes. Thereby I am assured that He took upon Himself the curse1 which lay on me, for a crucified one was cursed by God2.

    1. Galatians 3:13.
    2. Deuteronomy 21:23.

    Lord's day: 16 - Question and Answer 40

    Question: Why was it necessary for Christ to humble Himself even unto death?

    Answer: Because of the justice and truth of God1 satisfaction for our sins could be made in no other way than by the death of the Son of God2.

    1. Genesis 2:17.
    2. Romans 8:3-4; Philippians 2:6-8; Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:14-15.

    Lord's day: 16 - Question and Answer 41

    Question: Why was he buried?

    Answer: His burial testified that He had really died1.

    1. Matthew 27:59-60; Luke 23:53; John 19:38; Acts 13:29; 1 Corinthians 15:3-4.

    Lord's day: 16 - Question and Answer 42

    Question: Since Christ has died for us, why do we still have to die?

    Answer: Our death is not a payment for our sins1, but it puts an end to sin and is an entrance into eternal life2.

    1. Psalms 49:8; Mark 8:37.
    2. John 5:24; Romans 7:24; Philippians 1:23.

    Lord's day: 16 - Question and Answer 43

    Question: What further benefit do we receive from Christ's sacrifice and death on the cross?

    Answer: Through Christ's death our old nature is crucified, put to death, and buried with Him1, so that the evil desires of the flesh may no longer reign in us2, but that we may offer ourselves to Him as a sacrifice of thankfulness3.

    1. Romans 6:6.
    2. Romans 6:8-12.
    3. Romans 12:1.

    Lord's day: 16 - Question and Answer 44

    Question: Why is there added: He endured the suffering of hell - literally: He descended into hell?

    Answer: In my greatest sorrows and temptations I may be assured and comforted that my Lord Jesus Christ, by His unspeakable anguish, pain, terror, and agony, which He endured throughout all His sufferings1 but especially on the cross, has delivered me from the anguish and torment of hell2.

    1. Isaiah 53:5.
    2. Psalms 18:5-6; Psalms 116:3; Matthew 26:38; Matthew 27:46; Hebrews 5:7.

    Lord's day: 17 - Question and Answer 45

    Question: How does Christ's resurrection benefit us?

    Answer: First, by His resurrection He has overcome death, so that He could make us share in the righteousness which He had obtained for us by His death1. Second, by His power we too are raised up to a new life2. Third, Christ's resurrection is to us a sure pledge of our glorious resurrection3.

    1. Romans 4:25; 1 Corinthians 15:16-18; 1 Peter 1:3.
    2. Romans 6:4; Ephesians 2:4-6; Colossians 3:1-3.
    3. Romans 8:11; 1 Corinthians 15:20-21.

    Lord's day: 18 - Question and Answer 46

    Question: What do you confess when you say, He ascended into heaven? 1

    Answer: That Christ, before the eyes of His disciples, was taken up from the earth into heaven2, and that He is there for our benefit3 until He comes again to judge the living and the dead.

    1. Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51; Acts 1:9.
    2. Romans 8:34; Ephesians 4:10; Colossians 3:1; Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 9:24.
    3. Matthew 24:30; Acts 1:11.

    Lord's day: 18 - Question and Answer 47

    Question: Is Christ, then, not with us until the end of the world, as He has promised us?1

    Answer: Christ is true man and true God. With respect to His human nature He is no longer on earth2, but with respect to His divinity, majesty, grace, and Spirit He is never absent from us3.

    1. Matthew 28:20.
    2. Matthew 26:11; John 16:28; John 17:11; Acts 3:21; Hebrews 8:4.
    3. Matthew 28:20; John 14:16-18.

    Lord's day: 18- Question and Answer 48

    Question: But are the two natures in Christ not separated from each other if His human nature is not present wherever His divinity is?

    Answer: Not at all, for His divinity has no limits and is present everywhere1. So it must follow that His divinity is indeed beyond the human nature which He has taken on and nevertheless is within this human nature and remains personally united with it2.

    1. Jeremiah 23:24; Acts 7:49.
    2. Matthew 28:6; John 3:13; John 11:15; Colossians 2:9.

    Lord's day: 18 - Question and Answer 49

    Question: How does Christ's ascension into heaven benefit us?

    Answer: First, He is our Advocate in heaven before His Father1. Second, we have our flesh in heaven as a sure pledge that He, our Head, will also take us, His members, up to Himself2. Third, He sends us His Spirit as a counter-pledge3, by whose power we seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God, and not the things that are on earth4.

    1. Romans 8:34; 1 John 2:1.
    2. John 14:2; John 17:24; Ephesians 2:6.
    3. John 14:16; John 16:7; Acts 2:33; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Corinthians 5:5.
    4. Colossians 3:1; Philippians 3:20.

    Lord's day: 19 - Question and Answer 50

    Question: Why is it added, And sits at the right hand of God?

    Answer: Christ ascended into heaven to manifest Himself there as Head of His Church1, through whom the Father governs all things2.

    1. Ephesians 1:20-23; Colossians 1:18.
    2. Matthew 28:18; John 5:22.

    Lord's day: 19 - Question and Answer 51

    Question: How does the glory of Christ, our Head, benefit us?

    Answer: First, by His Holy Spirit He pours out heavenly gifts upon us, His members1. Second, by His power He defends and preserves us against all enemies2.

    1. Acts 2:33; Ephesians 4:8.
    2. Psalms 2:9; Psalms 110:1-2; John 10:28; Ephesians 4:8.

    Lord's day: 19 - Question and Answer 52

    Question: What comfort is it to you that Christ will come to judge the living and the dead?

    Answer: In all my sorrow and persecution I lift up my head and eagerly await as judge from heaven the very same person1 who before has submitted Himself to the judgment of God for my sake, and has removed all the curse from me. He will cast all His and my enemies into everlasting condemnation2, but He will take me and all His chosen ones to Himself into heavenly joy and glory3.

    1. Luke 21:28; Romans 8:23; Philippians 3:20; 1 Thessalonians 4:16; Titus 2:13.
    2. Matthew 25:41; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:8, 9.
    3. Matthew 25:34; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 1:10.

    Lord's day: 20 - Question and Answer 53

    Question: What do you believe concerning the Holy Spirit?

    Answer: First, He is, together with the Father and the Son, true and eternal God1. Second, He is also given to me2, to make me by true faith share in Christ and all His benefits3, to comfort me4, and to remain with me forever5.

    1. Genesis 1:2; Acts 5:3-4; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 6:19.
    2. Matthew 28:19-20; 2 Corinthians 1:22; Galatians 3:14; Galatians 4:6; Ephesians 1:13.
    3. John 16:13-14; 1 Corinthians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 6:17; Galatians 3:14; 1 Peter 1:2.
    4. John 15:26; Acts 9:31.
    5. John 14:16-17; 1 Peter 4:14.

    Lord's day: 21 - Question and Answer 54

    Question: What do you believe concerning the holy catholic Christian church?

    Answer: I believe that the Son of God1, out of the whole human race2, from the beginning of the world to its end3, gathers, defends, and preserves for Himself4, by His Spirit and Word5, in the unity of the true faith6, a church chosen to everlasting life7. And I believe that I am8 and forever shall remain a living member of it9.

    1. John 10:11; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 4:11-13; Ephesians 5:26.
    2. Genesis 26:4; Isaiah 49:6; Romans 10:10-11; Revelation 5:9.
    3. Psalms 71:17-18; Isaiah 59:21; 1 Corinthians 11:26.
    4. Psalms 129:1-5; Matthew 16:18; John 10:28-30.
    5. Isaiah 59:21; Romans 1:16; Romans 10:14-17; Ephesians 5:26.
    6. John 17:20-21; Acts 2:42; Ephesians 4:3-5.
    7. Psalms 111:1; Acts 20:28; Romans 8:29; Ephesians 1:10-13; Hebrews 12:22-23; 1 Peter 2:9.
    8. Romans 8:10; 2 Corinthians 13:5; 1 John 3:14; 1 John 3:19-21.
    9. Psalms 23:6; John 10:28; Romans 8:35-39; 1 Corinthians 1:8-9; 1 Peter 1:5; 1 John 2:19.

    Lord's day: 21 - Question and Answer 55

    Question: What do you understand by the communion of saints?

    Answer: First, that believers, all and everyone, as members of Christ have communion with Him and share in all His treasures and gifts1. Second, that everyone is duty-bound to use his gifts readily and cheerfully for the benefit and well-being of the other members2.

    1. Romans 8:32; 1 Corinthians 6:17; 1 Corinthians 12:12-13; 1 John 1:3.
    2. 1 Corinthians 12:21; 1 Corinthians 13:1; 1 Corinthians 13:5; Philippians 2:1-8.

    Lord's day: 21 - Question and Answer 56

    Question: What do you believe concerning the forgiveness of sins?

    Answer: I believe that God, because of Christ's satisfaction, will no more remember my sins1, nor my sinful nature, against which I have to struggle all my life2, but He will graciously grant me the righteousness of Christ, that I may never come into condemnation3.

    1. Psalms 103:3; Psalms 103:10; Psalms 103:12; Jeremiah 31:34; Micah 7:19; Romans 7:23-25.
    2. 2 Corinthians 5:19; 1 John 1:7; 1 John 2:2.
    3. John 3:18; John 5:24.

    Lord's day: 22 - Question and Answer 57

    Question: What comfort does the resurrection of the body offer you?

    Answer: Not only shall my soul after this life immediately be taken up to Christ, my Head1, but also this my flesh, raised by the power of Christ, shall be reunited with my soul and made like Christ's glorious body2.

    1. Luke 16:22; Luke 20:37-38; Luke 23:43; Philippians 1:21; Philippians 1:23.
    2. Job 19:25-26; 1 Corinthians 15:53-54; Philippians 3:21; 1 John 3:2.

    Lord's day: 22 - Question and Answer 58

    Question: What comfort do you receive from the article about the life everlasting?

    Answer: Since I now already feel in my heart the beginning of eternal joy1, I shall after this life possess perfect blessedness, such as no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man conceived-- a blessedness in which to praise God forever2.

    1. 2 Corinthians 5:2-3.
    2. John 17:24; 1 Corinthians 2:9.

    Lord's day: 23 - Question and Answer 59

    Question: But what does it help you now that you believe all this?

    Answer: In Christ I am righteous before God and heir to life everlasting1.

    1. Habakkuk 2:4; John 3:36; Romans 1:17.

    Lord's day: 23 - Question and Answer 60

    Question: How are you righteous before God?

    Answer: Only by true faith in Jesus Christ1. Although my conscience accuses me that I have grievously sinned against all God's commandments, have never kept any of them2, and am still inclined to all evil3, yet God, without any merit of my own4, out of mere grace5, imputes to me the perfect satisfaction6, righteousness, and holiness of Christ7. He grants these to me as if I had never had nor committed any sin, and as if I myself had accomplished all the obedience which Christ has rendered for me8, if only I accept this gift with a believing heart9.

    1. Romans 3:21-22; Romans 3:24; Romans 5:1-2; Galatians 2:16; Ephesians 2:8-9; Philippians 3:9.
    2. Romans 3:9.
    3. Romans 7:23.
    4. Deuteronomy 9:6; Ezekiel 36:22; Romans 4:4; 2 Corinthians 5:19; Titus 3:5.
    5. Romans 3:24; Ephesians 2:8.
    6. 1 John 2:2.
    7. 1 John 2:1.
    8. 2 Corinthians 5:21.
    9. John 3:18; Romans 3:22.

    Lord's day: 23 - Question and Answer 61

    Question: Why do you say that you are righteous only by faith?

    Answer: Not that I am acceptable to God on account of the worthiness of my faith, for only the satisfaction, righteousness, and holiness of Christ is my righteousness before God1. I can receive this righteousness and make it mine my own by faith only2.

    1. 1 Corinthians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 2:2.
    2. 1 John 5:10.

    Lord's day: 24 - Question and Answer 62

    Question: But why can our good works not be our righteousness before God, or at least a part of it?

    Answer: Because the righteousness which can stand before God's judgment must be absolutely perfect and in complete agreement with the law of God1, whereas even our best works in this life are all imperfect and defiled with sin2.

    1. Deuteronomy 27:26; Galatians 3:10.
    2. Isaiah 64:6.

    Lord's day: 24 - Question and Answer 63

    Question: But do our good works earn nothing, even though God promises to reward them in this life and the next?

    Answer: This reward is not earned; it is a gift of grace1.

    1. Luke 17:10.

    Lord's day: 24 - Question and Answer 64

    Question: Does this teaching not make people careless and wicked?

    Answer: No. It is impossible that those grafted into Christ by true faith should not bring forth fruits of thankfulness1.

    1. Matthew 7:18; John 15:5.

    Lord's day: 25 - Question and Answer 65

    Question: Since then faith alone makes us share in Christ and all His benefits, where does this faith come from?

    Answer: From the Holy Spirit, who works it in our hearts1 by the preaching of the gospel, and strengthens it by the use of the sacraments2.

    1. John 3:5; Ephesians 2:8; Ephesians 6:23; 1 Corinthians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 12:3; Philippians 1:29.
    2. Matthew 28:19; Romans 10:17; Ephesians 1:17-18; 1 Peter 1:22-23.

    Lord's day: 25 - Question and Answer 66

    Question: What are the sacraments?

    Answer: The sacraments are holy, visible signs and seals. They were instituted by God so that by their use He might the more fully declare and seal to us the promise of the gospel. And this is the promise: that God graciously grants us forgiveness of sins and everlasting life because of the one sacrifice of Christ accomplished on the cross1.

    1. Genesis 17:11; Leviticus 6:25; Deuteronomy 30:6; Isaiah 6:6-7; Isaiah 54:9; Ezekiel 20:12; Romans 4:11; Hebrews 9:7-9; Hebrews 9:24.

    Lord's day: 25 - Question and Answer 67

    Question: Are both the Word and the sacraments then intended to focus our faith on the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross as the only ground of our salvation?

    Answer: Yes, indeed. The Holy Spirit teaches us in the gospel and assures us by the sacraments that our entire salvation rests on Christ's one sacrifice for us on the cross1.

    1. Romans 6:3; Galatians 3:27.

    Lord's day: 25 - Question and Answer 68

    Question: How many sacraments has Christ instituted in the new covenant?

    Answer: Two: holy baptism and the holy supper.

    Lord's day: 26 - Question and Answer 69

    Question: How does holy baptism signify and seal to you that the one sacrifice of Christ on the cross benefits you?

    Answer: In this way: Christ instituted this outward washing1 and with it gave the promise2 that, as surely as water washes away the dirt from the body3, so certainly His blood and Spirit wash away the impurity of my soul, that is, all my sins.

    1. Matthew 28:19.
    2. Matthew 3:11; Matthew 28:19; Mark 16:16; John 1:33; Acts 2:38; Romans 6:3-4.
    3. Luke 3:3; Mark 1:4; 1 Peter 3:21.

    Lord's day: 26 - Question and Answer 70

    Question: What does it mean to be washed with Christ's blood and Spirit?

    Answer: To be washed with Christ's blood means to receive forgiveness of sins from God, through grace, because of Christ's blood, poured out for us in His sacrifice on the cross1. To be washed with His Spirit means to be renewed by the Holy Spirit and sanctified to be members of Christ, so that more and more we become dead to sin and lead a holy and blameless life2.

    1. Ezekiel 36:25; Zechariah 13:1; Hebrews 12:24; 1 Peter 1:2; Revelation 1:5; Revelation 7:14.
    2. Ezekiel 36:26-27; John 1:33; John 3:5; Romans 6:4; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Colossians 2:11-12.

    Lord's day: 26 - Question and Answer 71

    Question: Where has Christ promised that He will wash us with His blood and Spirit as surely as we are washed with the water of baptism?

    Answer: In the institution of baptism, where He says: Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit1. He who believes and is baptized will be saved, but he who does not believe will be condemned2. This promise is repeated where Scripture calls baptism the washing of regeneration and the washing away of sins3.

    1. Matthew 28:19.
    2. Mark 16:16.
    3. Acts 22:16; Titus 3:5.

    Lord's day: 27 - Question and Answer 72

    Question: Does this outward washing with water itself wash away sins?

    Answer: No1, only the blood of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit cleanse us from all sins2.

    1. Matthew 3:11; Ephesians 5:26; 1 Peter 3:21.
    2. 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 John 1:7.

    Lord's day: 27 - Question and Answer 73

    Question: Why then does the Holy Spirit call baptism the washing of regeneration and the washing away of sins?

    Answer: God speaks in this way for a good reason. He wants to teach us that the blood and Spirit of Christ remove our sins just as water takes away dirt from the body1. But, even more important, He wants to assure us by this divine pledge and sign that we are as truly cleansed from our sins spiritually as we are bodily washed with water2.

    1. 1 Corinthians 6:11; Revelation 1:5; Revelation 7:14.
    2. Mark 16:16; Galatians 3:27.

    Lord's day: 27 - Question and Answer 74

    Question: Should infants, too, be baptized?

    Answer: Yes. Infants as well as adults belong to God's covenant and congregation1. Through Christ's blood the redemption from sin and the Holy Spirit, who works faith, are promised to them no less than to adults2. Therefore, by baptism, as sign of the covenant, they must be grafted into the Christian church and distinguished from the children of unbelievers3. This was done in the old covenant by circumcision4, in place of which baptism was instituted in the new covenant5.

    1. Genesis 17:7.
    2. Psalms 22:11; Isaiah 44:1-3; Matthew 19:14; Luke 1:15; Acts 2:39.
    3. Acts 10:47.
    4. Genesis 17:14.
    5. Colossians 2:11-13.

    Lord's day: 28 - Question and Answer 75

    Question: How does the Lord's Supper signify and seal to you that you share in Christ's one sacrifice on the cross and in all His gifts?

    Answer: In this way: Christ has commanded me and all believers to eat of this broken bread and drink of this cup in remembrance of Him. With this command He gave these promises1: First, as surely as I see with my eyes the bread of the Lord broken for me and the cup given to me, so surely was His body offered for me and His blood poured out for me on the cross. Second, as surely as I receive from the hand of the minister and taste with my mouth the bread and the cup of the Lord as sure signs of Christ's body and blood, so surely does He Himself nourish and refresh my soul to everlasting life with His crucified body and shed blood.

    1. Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20; 1 Corinthians 10:16-17; 1 Corinthians 11:23-25; 1 Corinthians 12:13.

    Lord's day: 28 - Question and Answer 76

    Question: What does it mean to eat the crucified body of Christ and to drink His shed blood?

    Answer: First, to accept with a believing heart all the suffering and the death of Christ, and so receive forgiveness of sins and life eternal1. Second, to be united more and more to His sacred body through the Holy Spirit, who lives both in Christ and in us2. Therefore, although Christ is in heaven3 and we are on earth, yet we are flesh of His flesh and bone of His bones4, and we forever live and are governed by one Spirit, as the members of our body are by one soul5.

    1. John 6:35; John 6:40; John 6:47-54.
    2. John 6:55-56.
    3. Acts 1:9-11; Acts 3:21; 1 Corinthians 11:26; Colossians 3:1.
    4. 1 Corinthians 6:15; Ephesians 3:16; Ephesians 5:29-30; 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:13.
    5. John 6:57; John 15:1-6; Ephesians 4:15-16.

    Lord's day: 28 - Question and Answer 77

    Question: Where has Christ promised that He will nourish and refresh believers with His body and blood as surely as they eat of this broken bread and drink of this cup?

    Answer: In the institution of the Lord's supper1: The Lord Jesus on the night when He was betrayed took bread, and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, "This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, "Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me." For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until He comes2. This promise is repeated by Paul where he says: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread3.

    1. Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20.
    2. 1 Corinthians 11:23-26.
    3. 1 Corinthians 10:16, 17.

    Lord's day: 29 - Question and Answer 78

    Question: Are then the bread and wine changed into the real body and blood of Christ?

    Answer: No1. Just as the water of baptism is not changed into the blood of Christ and is not the washing away of sins itself but is simply God's sign and pledge2, so also the bread in the Lord's supper does not become the body of Christ itself, although it is called Christ's body3 in keeping with the nature and usage of sacraments4.

    1. Matthew 26:29.
    2. Ephesians 5:26; Titus 3:5.
    3. 1 Corinthians 10:16-17; 1 Corinthians 11:26.
    4. Genesis 17:10-11; Exodus 12:11; Exodus 12:13; Exodus 13:9; 1 Corinthians 10:3-4; 1 Peter 3:21.

    Lord's day: 29 - Question and Answer 79

    Question: Why then does Christ call the bread His body and the cup His blood, or the new covenant in His blood, and why does Paul speak of a participation in the body and blood of Christ?

    Answer: Christ speaks in this way for a good reason: He wants to teach us by His supper that as bread and wine sustain us in this temporal life, so His crucified body and shed blood are true food and drink for our souls to eternal life1. But, even more important, He wants to assure us by this visible sign and pledge, first, that through the working of the Holy Spirit we share in His true body and blood as surely as we receive with our mouth these holy signs in remembrance of Him, and, second, that all His suffering and obedience are as certainly ours as if we personally had suffered and paid for our sins2.

    1. John 6:51; John 6:53-55.
    2. 1 Corinthians 10:16-17.

    Lord's day: 30 - Question and Answer 80

    Question: What difference is there between the Lord's supper and the papal mass?

    Answer: The Lord's supper testifies to us, first, that we have complete forgiveness of all our sins through the one sacrifice of Jesus Christ, which He Himself accomplished on the cross once for all;1 and, second, that through the Holy Spirit we are grafted into Christ2, who with His true body is now in heaven at the right hand of the Father3, and this is where He wants to be worshipped4. But the mass teaches, first, that the living and the dead do not have forgiveness of sins through the suffering of Christ unless He is still offered for them daily by the priests; and, second, that Christ is bodily present in the form of bread and wine, and there is to be worshipped. Therefore the mass is basically nothing but a denial of the one sacrifice and suffering of Jesus Christ, and an accursed idolatry5.

    1. Matthew 26:28; Luke 22:19-20; John 19:30; Hebrews 7:26-27; Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 9:24-28; Hebrews 10:10; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 10:14.
    2. 1 Corinthians 6:17; 1 Corinthians 10:16-17.
    3. John 20:17; Colossians 3:1; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1
    4. Acts 7:55; Philippians 3:20; Colossians 3:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:10.
    5. Hebrews 9:26; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 10:14.

    Lord's day: 30 - Question and Answer 81

    Question: Who are to come to the table of the Lord?

    Answer: Those who are truly displeased with themselves because of their sins and yet trust that these are forgiven them and that their remaining weakness is covered by the suffering and death of Christ, and who also desire more and more to strengthen their faith and amend their life. But hypocrites and those who do not repent eat and drink judgment upon themselves1.

    1. 1 Corinthians 10:19-22; 1 Corinthians 11:28.

    Lord's day: 30 - Question and Answer 82

    Question: Are those also to be admitted to the Lord's supper who by their confession and life show that they are unbelieving and ungodly?

    Answer: No, for then the covenant of God would be profaned and His wrath kindled against the whole congregation1.

    1. Psalms 50:16; Isaiah 1:11; Isaiah 66:3; Jeremiah 7:21; 1 Corinthians 11:20; 1 Corinthians 11:34.

    Lord's day: 31 - Question and Answer 83

    Question: What are the keys of the kingdom of heaven?

    Answer: The preaching of the holy gospel and church discipline. By these two the kingdom of heaven is opened to believers and closed to unbelievers1.

    1. Matthew 16:18-19; Matthew 18:15-18.

    Lord's day: 31 - Question and Answer 84

    Question: How is the kingdom of heaven opened and closed by the preaching of the gospel?

    Answer: According to the command of Christ, the kingdom of heaven is opened when it is proclaimed and publicly testified to each and every believer that God has really forgiven all their sins for the sake of Christ's merits, as often as they by true faith accept the promise of the gospel. The kingdom of heaven is closed when it is proclaimed and testified to all unbelievers and hypocrites that the wrath of God and eternal condemnation rest on them as long as they do not repent. According to this testimony of the gospel, God will judge both in this life and in the life to come1.

    1. Matthew 16:19; John 20:21-23.

    Lord's day: 31 - Question and Answer 85

    Question: How is the kingdom of heaven closed and opened by church discipline?

    Answer: According to the command of Christ, people who call themselves Christians but show themselves to be unchristian in doctrine or life are first repeatedly admonished in a brotherly manner. If they do not give up their errors or wickedness, they are reported to the church, that is, to the elders. If they do not heed also their admonitions, they are forbidden the use of the sacraments, and they are excluded by the elders from the Christian congregation, and by God Himself from the kingdom of Christ. They are again received as members of Christ and of the church when they promise and show real amendment1.

    1. Matthew 18:15-18; 1 Corinthians 5:4-5; 1 Corinthians 5:11; 2 Corinthians 2:6-8; 2 Thessalonians 3:1415; 2 John 10-11. -

    Lord's day: 32 - Question and Answer 86

    Question: Since we have been delivered from our misery by grace alone through Christ, without any merit of our own, why must we yet do good works?

    Answer: Because Christ, having redeemed us by His blood, also renews us by His Holy Spirit to be His image1, so that with our whole life we may show ourselves thankful to God for His benefits, and He may be praised by us2. Further, that we ourselves may be assured of our faith by its fruits3, and that by our godly walk of life we may win our neighbours for Christ4.

    1. Romans 6:13; Romans 12:1-2; 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Peter 2:5; 1 Peter 2:9.
    2. Matthew 5:16; 1 Peter 2:12.
    3. Matthew 7:17; Galatians 5:6; Galatians 5:22; 2 Peter 1:10.
    4. Romans 14:19; 1 Peter 3:1-2.

    Lord's day: 32 - Question and Answer 87

    Question: Can those be saved who do not turn to God from their ungrateful and impenitent walk of life?

    Answer: By no means. Scripture says that no unchaste person, idolater, adulterer, thief, greedy person, drunkard, slanderer, robber, or the like shall inherit the kingdom of God1.

    1. 1 Corinthians 6:9-10; Ephesians 5:5-6; 1 John 3:14

    Lord's day: 33 - Question and Answer 88

    Question: What is the true repentance or conversion of man?

    Answer: It is the dying of the old nature and the coming to life of the new1.

    1. Romans 6:1-2; Romans 6:4-6; 1 Corinthians 5:7; 2 Corinthians 7:10; Ephesians 4:22-24; Colossians 3:5-6; Colossians 3:8-10.

    Lord's day: 33 - Question and Answer 89

    Question: What is the dying of the old nature?

    Answer: It is to grieve with heartfelt sorrow that we have offended God by our sin, and more and more to hate it and flee from it1.

    1. Hosea 6:1 ; Joel 2:13; Romans 8:13.

    Lord's day: 33 - Question and Answer 90

    Question: What is the coming to life of the new nature?

    Answer: It is a heartfelt joy in God through Christ1, and a love and delight to live according to the will of God in all good works2.

    1. Isaiah 57:15; Romans 5:1-2; Romans 14:17.
    2. Romans 6:10-11; Galatians 2:20.

    Lord's day: 33 - Question and Answer 91

    Question: But what are good works?

    Answer: Only those which are done out of true faith1, in accordance with the law of God2, and to His glory3, and not those based on our own opinion or on precepts of men4.

    1. Romans 14:23.
    2. Leviticus 18:4; 1 Samuel 15:22; Ephesians 2:10.
    3. 1 Corinthians 10:31.
    4. Isaiah 29:13-14; Ezekiel 20:18-19; Matthew 15:7-9.

    Lord's day: 34 - Question and Answer 92

    Question: What is the law of the LORD?

    Answer: God spoke all these words, saying:

    I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

    1. You shall have no other gods before Me.

    2. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love Me and keep My commandments.

    3. You shall not take the Name of the LORD your God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes His Name in vain.

    4. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labour, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a sabbath to the LORD your God; in it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your manservant, or your maidservant, or your cattle, or the sojourner who is within your gates; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and hallowed it.

    5. Honour your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which the LORD your God gives you.

    6. You shall not kill.

    7. You shall not commit adultery.

    8. You shall not steal.

    9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour.

    10. you shall not covet your neighbour's house; you shall not covet your neighbour's wife, or his manservant, or his maidservant, or his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbour's.

    Lord's day: 34 - Question and Answer 93

    Question: How are these commandments divided?

    Answer: Into two parts. The first teaches us how to live in relation to God; the second, what duties we owe our neighbour1.

    1. Exodus 31:18; Exodus 34:28; Deuteronomy 4:13; Deuteronomy 10:3-4.
    2. Matthew 22:37-40.

    Lord's day: 34 - Question and Answer 94

    Question: What does the LORD require in the first commandment?

    Answer: That for the sake of my very salvation I avoid and flee all idolatry1, witchcraft, superstition2, and prayer to saints or to other creatures3. Further, that I rightly come to know the only true God4, trust in Him alone5, submit to Him with all humility6 and patience7, expect all good from Him only8, and love9, fear,10 and honour Him11 with all my heart. In short, that I forsake all creatures rather than do the least thing against His will12.

    1. 1 Corinthians 6:10; 1 Corinthians 10:7; 1 Corinthians 10:14; 1 John 5:21.
    2. Leviticus 19:31; Deuteronomy 18:9-12.
    3. Matthew 4:10; Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:8-9.
    4. John 17:3.
    5. Jeremiah 17:5; Jeremiah 17:7.
    6. 1 Peter 5:5.
    7. Romans 5:3-5; 1 Corinthians 10:10; Philippians 2:14; Colossians 1:11; Hebrews 10:36.
    8. Psalms 104:27-28; Isaiah 45:7; James 1:17.
    9. Deuteronomy 6:5; Matthew 22:37.
    10. Deuteronomy 6:2; Psalms 111:10; Proverbs 1:7; Proverbs 9:10; Matthew 10:28.
    11. Deuteronomy 10:20; Matthew 4:10.
    12. Matthew 5:29-30; Matthew 10:37-39; Acts 5:29.

    Lord's day: 34 - Question and Answer 95

    Question: What is idolatry?

    Answer: Idolatry is having or inventing something in which to put our trust instead of, or in addition to, the only true God who has revealed Himself in His Word1.

    1. 1 Chronicles 16:26; Isaiah 44:15-17; John 5:22; Galatians 4:8; Ephesians 2:12; Ephesians 5:5; Philippians 3:19; 1 John 2:23; 2 John: 9.

    Lord's day: 35 - Question and Answer 96

    Question: What does God require in the second commandment?

    Answer: We are not to make an image of God in any way1, nor to worship Him in any other manner than He has commanded in His Word2.

    1. Deuteronomy 4:15-16; Isaiah 40:18-19; Isaiah 40:25; Acts 17:29; Romans 1:22-25.
    2. Deuteronomy 12:29-32; 1 Samuel 15:23; Matthew 15:9.

    Lord's day: 35 - Question and Answer 97

    Question: May we then not make any image at all?

    Answer: God cannot and may not be visibly portrayed in any way1. Creatures may be portrayed, but God forbids us to make or have any images of them in order to worship them or to serve God through them2.

    1. Isaiah 40:25.
    2. Exodus 23:24; Exodus 34:13-17; Numbers 33:52; Deuteronomy 12:3-4.

    Lord's day: 35 - Question and Answer 98

    Question: But may images not be tolerated in the churches as "books for the laity"?

    Answer: No, for we should not be wiser than God. He wants His people to be taught not by means of dumb images1 but by the living preaching of His Word2.

    1. Jeremiah 10:8; Habakkuk 2:18-19.
    2. Romans 10:14-17; 2 Timothy 3:16-17; 2 Peter 1:19.

    Lord's day: 36 - Question and Answer 99

    Question: What is required in the third commandment?

    Answer: We are not to blaspheme or to abuse the Name of God by cursing1, perjury2, or unnecessary oaths3, nor to share in such horrible sins by being silent bystanders4. In short, we must use the holy Name of God only with fear and reverence5, so that we may rightly confess Him6, call upon Him7, and praise Him in all our words and works8.

    1. Leviticus 24:15-16.
    2. Leviticus 19:12.
    3. Matthew 5:37; James 5:12.
    4. Leviticus 5:1; Proverbs 29:24.
    5. Isaiah 45:23; Jeremiah 4:2.
    6. Matthew 10:32; Romans 10:9-10.
    7. Psalms 50:15; 1 Timothy 2:8.
    8. Romans 2:24; Colossians 3:17; 1 Timothy 6:1.

    Lord's day: 36 - Question and Answer 100

    Question: Is the blaspheming of God's Name by swearing and cursing such a grievous sin that God is angry also with those who do not prevent and forbid it as much as they can?

    Answer: Certainly1, for no sin is greater or provokes God's wrath more than the blaspheming of His Name. That is why He commanded it to be punished with death2.

    1. Leviticus 5:1; Proverbs 29:24.
    2. Leviticus 24:16.

    Lord's day: 37 - Question and Answer 101

    Question: But may we swear an oath by the Name of God in a godly manner?

    Answer: Yes, when the government demands it of its subjects, or when necessity requires it, in order to maintain and promote fidelity and truth, to God's glory and for our neighbour's good. Such oath-taking is based on God's Word1 and was therefore rightly used by saints in the Old and the New Testament2.

    1. Deuteronomy 6:13; Deuteronomy 10:20; Hebrews 6:16.
    2. Genesis 21:24; Genesis 31:53; Joshua 9:15; 1 Samuel 24:22-23; 2 Samuel 3:35; 1 Kings 1:29-30; Romans 1:9; Romans 9:1; 2 Corinthians 1:23.

    Lord's day: 37 - Question and Answer 102

    Question: May we also swear by saints or other creatures?

    Answer: No. A lawful oath is a calling upon God, who alone knows the heart, to bear witness to the truth, and to punish me if I swear falsely1. No creature is worthy of such honour2.

    1. Romans 9:1; 2 Corinthians 1:23.
    2. Matthew 5:34-36; James 5:12.

    Lord's day: 38 - Question and Answer 103

    Question: What does God require in the fourth commandment?

    Answer: First, that the ministry of the gospel and the schools be maintained1 and that, especially on the day of rest, I diligently attend the church of God2 to hear God's Word3, to use the sacraments4, to call publicly upon the LORD5, and to give Christian offerings for the poor6. Second, that all the days of my life I rest from my evil works, let the LORD work in me through His Holy Spirit, and so begin in this life the eternal sabbath7.

    1. 1 Corinthians 9:13-14; 2 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 3:14-15; Titus 1:5.
    2. Leviticus 23:2-3; Psalms 40:10-11; Psalms 68:27; Psalms 122:1; Acts 2:42.
    3. 1 Corinthians 14:1; 1 Corinthians 14:3; 1 Corinthians 14:29; 1 Timothy 4:13; Revelation 1:3.
    4. Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 11:33.
    5. 1 Corinthians 14:16; 1 Timothy 2:1-4.
    6. Deuteronomy 15:11; 1 Corinthians 16:2.
    7. Isaiah 66:23; Hebrews 4:9-10.

    Lord's day: 39 - Question and Answer 104

    Question: What does God require in the fifth commandment?

    Answer: That I show all honour, love, and faithfulness to my father and mother and to all those in authority over me, submit myself with due obedience to their good instruction and discipline1, and also have patience with their weaknesses and shortcomings2, since it is God's will to govern us by their hand3.

    1. Exodus 21:17; Proverbs 1:8; Proverbs 4:1; Proverbs 15:20; Proverbs 20:20; Romans 13:1; Ephesians 5:22; Ephesians 6:1-2; Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:18; Colossians 3:20; Colossians 3:22.
    2. Proverbs 23:22; 1 Peter 2:18.
    3. Matthew 22:21; Romans 13:2-3; Ephesians 6:4; Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 3:20.

    Lord's day: 40 - Question and Answer 105

    Question: What does God require in the sixth commandment?

    Answer: I am not to dishonour, hate, injure, or kill my neighbour by thoughts, words, or gestures, and much less by deeds, whether personally or through another;1 rather, I am to put away all desire of revenge2. Moreover, I am not to harm or recklessly endanger myself3. Therefore, also, the government bears the sword to prevent murder4.

    1. Genesis 9:6; Matthew 5:21-22; Matthew 26:52.
    2. Matthew 5:25; Matthew 18:35; Romans 12:19; Ephesians 4:26.
    3. Matthew 4:7; Romans 13:14; Colossians 2:23.
    4. Genesis 9:6; Exodus 21:14; Romans 13:4.

    Lord's day: 40 - Question and Answer 106

    Question: But does this commandment speak only of killing?

    Answer: By forbidding murder God teaches us that He hates the root of murder1, such as envy, hatred2, anger3, and desire of revenge, and that He regards all these as murder4.

    1. Psalms 37:8; Proverbs 14:30; Romans 1:29.
    2. 1 John 2:11.
    3. Galatians 5:19-21; James 1:20.
    4. 1 John 3:15.

    Lord's day: 40 - Question and Answer 107

    Question: Is it enough, then, that we do not kill our neighbour in any such way?

    Answer: No. When God condemns envy, hatred, and anger, He commands us to love our neighbour as ourselves1, to show patience, peace, gentleness, mercy, and friendliness toward him2, to protect him from harm as much as we can3, and to do good even to our enemies4.

    1. Matthew 7:12; Matthew 22:39; Romans 12:10.
    2. Matthew 5:5; Matthew 5:7; Luke 6:36; Romans 12:18; Galatians 6:1-2; Ephesians 4:1-3; Colossians 3:12; 1 Peter 3:8.
    3. Exodus 23:5.
    4. Matthew 5:44-45; Romans 12:20.

    Lord's day: 41 - Question and Answer: 108

    Question: What does the seventh commandment teach us?

    Answer: That all unchastity is cursed by God1. We must therefore detest it from the heart2 and live chaste and disciplined lives3, both within and outside of holy marriage4.

    1. Leviticus 18:28.
    2. Malachi 2:16.
    3. 1 Thessalonians 4:3-5.
    4. 1 Corinthians 7:7; 1 Corinthians 7:10-11; Hebrews 13:4; Judas: 23.

    Lord's day: 41 - Question and Answer 109

    Question: Does God in this commandment forbid nothing more than adultery and similar shameful sins?

    Answer: Since we, body and soul, are temples of the Holy Spirit, it is God's will that we keep ourselves pure and holy. Therefore He forbids all unchaste acts, gestures, words1, thoughts, desires2, and whatever may entice us to unchastity3.

    1. 1 Corinthians 6:18-19; Ephesians 5:3-4.
    2. Deuteronomy 22:20-29; Matthew 5:27-28.
    3. 1 Corinthians 15:33; Ephesians 5:18.

    Lord's day: 42 - Question and Answer 110

    Question: What does God forbid in the eighth commandment?

    Answer: God forbids not only outright theft1 and robbery2 but also such wicked schemes3 and devices as false weights and measures, deceptive merchandising, counterfeit money, and usury4; we must not defraud our neighbour in any way, whether by force or by show of right5. In addition God forbids all greed6 and all abuse or squandering of His gifts7.

    1. 1 Corinthians 6:10.
    2. Leviticus 19:13; 1 Corinthians 5:10.
    3. Luke 3:14; 1 Thessalonians 4:6.
    4. Deuteronomy 25:13-15; Proverbs 11:1; Proverbs 16:11; Ezekiel 45:9-10.
    5. Psalms 15:5; Luke 6:35.
    6. 1 Corinthians 6:10.
    7. Proverbs 21:20; Proverbs 23:20-21.

    Lord's day: 42 - Question and Answer 111

    Question: What does God require of you in this commandment?

    Answer: I must promote my neighbour's good wherever I can and may, deal with him as I would like others to deal with me1, and work faithfully so that I may be able to give to those in need2.

    1. Matthew 7:12.
    2. Ephesians 4:28.

    Lord's day: 43 - Question and Answer 112

    Question: What is required in the ninth commandment?

    Answer: I must not give false testimony against anyone1, twist no one's words2, not gossip or slander3, nor condemn or join in condemning anyone rashly and unheard4. Rather, I must avoid all lying and deceit as the devil's own works5, under penalty of God's heavy wrath6. In court and everywhere else, I must love the truth, speak and confess it honestly7, and do what I can to defend and promote my neighbour's honour and reputation8.

    1. Proverbs 19:5; Proverbs 19:9; Proverbs 21:28.
    2. Psalms 15:3.
    3. Psalms 50:19-20; Romans 1:30.
    4. Matthew 7:1-2; Luke 6:37.
    5. John 8:44.
    6. Proverbs 12:22; Proverbs 13:5.
    7. 1 Corinthians 13:6; Ephesians 4:25.
    8. 1 Peter 4:8.

    Lord's day: 44 - Question and Answer 113

    Question: What does the tenth commandment require of us?

    Answer: That not even the slightest thought or desire contrary to any of God's commandments should ever arise in our heart. Rather, we should always hate all sin with all our heart, and delight in all righteousness1.

    1. Romans 7:7

    Lord's day: 44 - Question and Answer 114

    Question: But can those converted to God keep these commandments perfectly?

    Answer: No. In this life even the holiest have only a small beginning of this obedience1. Nevertheless, with earnest purpose they do begin to live not only according to some but to all the commandments of God2.

    1. Prediker 7:20; Romans 7:14-15; 1 Corinthians 13:9; 1 John 1:8; 1 John 1:10.
    2. Psalms 1:2; Romans 7:22; 1 John 2:3.

    Lord's day: 44 - Question and Answer 115

    Question: If in this life no one can keep the ten commandments perfectly, why does God have them preached so strictly?

    Answer: First, that throughout our life we may more and more become aware of our sinful nature1, and therefore seek more eagerly the forgiveness of sins and righteousness in Christ2. Second, that we may be zealous for good deeds and constantly pray to God for the grace of the Holy Spirit, that He may more and more renew us after God's image, until after this life we reach the goal of perfection3.

    1. Psalms 32:5; Romans 3:20; 1 John 1:9.
    2. Matthew 5:6; Romans 7:24-25.
    3. 1 Corinthians 9:24; Philippians 3:12-14.

    Lord's day: 45 - Question and Answer 116

    Question: Why is prayer necessary for Christians?

    Answer: Because prayer is the most important part of the thankfulness which God requires of us1. Moreover, God will give His grace and the Holy Spirit only to those who constantly and with heartfelt longing ask Him for these gifts and thank Him for them2.

    1. Psalms 50:14-15.
    2. Matthew 7:7-8; Luke 11:9-10; Luke 11:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:17-18.

    Lord's day: 45 - Question and Answer 117

    Question: What belongs to a prayer which pleases God and is heard by Him?

    Answer: First, we must from the heart call upon1 the one true God only2, who has revealed Himself in His Word, for all that He has commanded us to pray3. Second, we must thoroughly know our need and misery4, so that we may humble ourselves before God5. Third, we must rest on this firm foundation6 that, although we do not deserve it, God will certainly hear our prayer for the sake of Christ our Lord7, as He has promised us in His Word8.

    1. Psalms 145:18; John 4:24.
    2. John 4:22-24; Revelation 19:10.
    3. Romans 8:26; James 1:5; 1 John 5:14.
    4. 2 Chronicles 20:12; Psalms 143:2.
    5. Psalms 2:11; Psalms 34:19; Isaiah 66:2.
    6. Romans 8:15-17; Romans 10:14; James 1:6.
    7. Daniel 9:17-19; John 14:13-14; John 15:16; John 16:23.
    8. Psalms 27:8; Psalms 143:1; Matthew 7:8.

    Lord's day: 45 - Question and Answer 118

    Question: What has God commanded us to ask of Him?

    Answer: All the things we need for body and soul, as included in the prayer which Christ our Lord Himself taught us1.

    1. Matthew 6:33; James 1:17.

    Lord's day: 45 - Question and Answer 119

    Question: What is the Lord's prayer?


    Our Father who art in heaven,

    Hallowed be Thy Name.

    Thy kingdom come,

    Thy will be done, On earth as it is in heaven.

    Give us this day our daily bread;

    And forgive us our debts, As we also have forgiven our debtors;

    And lead us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.

    For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever.


    Lord's day: 46 - Question and Answer 120

    Question: Why has Christ commanded us to address God as Our Father?

    Answer: To awaken in us at the very beginning of our prayer that childlike reverence and trust toward God which should be basic to our prayer: God has become our Father through Christ and will much less deny us what we ask of Him in faith than our fathers would refuse us earthly things1.

    1. Matthew 7:9-11; Luke 11:11-13.

    Lord's day: 46 - Question and Answer 121

    Question: Why is there added, Who art in heaven?

    Answer: These words teach us not to think of God's heavenly majesty in an earthly manner1, and to expect from His almighty power all things we need for body and soul2.

    1. Jeremiah 23:23-24; Acts 17:24-25; Acts 17:27.
    2. Romans 10:12.

    Lord's day: 47 - Question and Answer 122

    Question: What is the first petition?

    Answer: Hallowed be Thy Name. That is: Grant us first of all that we may rightly know Thee1, and sanctify, glorify, and praise Thee in all Thy works, in which shine forth Thy almighty power, wisdom, goodness, righteousness, mercy, and truth2. Grant us also that we may so direct our whole life-- our thoughts, words, and actions-- that Thy Name is not blasphemed because of us but always honoured and praised3.

    1. Psalms 119:105; Jeremiah 9:24; Jeremiah 31:33-34; Matthew 16:17; John 17:3; James 1:5.
    2. Exodus 34:6-7; Psalms 119:137-138; Psalms 145:8, 9; Jeremiah 31:3; Luke 1:46-47; Luke 1:68-69; Romans 11:33.
    3. Psalms 71:8; Psalms 115:1; Matthew 5:16.

    Lord's day: 48 - Question and Answer 123

    Question: What is the second petition?

    Answer: Thy kingdom come. That is: So rule us by Thy Word and Spirit that more and more we submit to Thee1. Preserve and increase Thy church2. Destroy the works of the devil, every power that raises itself against Thee, and every conspiracy against Thy holy Word3. Do all this until the fulness of Thy kingdom comes4, wherein Thou shalt be all in all5.

    1. Psalms 119:5; Psalms 143:10; Matthew 6:33.
    2. Psalms 51:20; Psalms 122:6-7.
    3. Romans 16:20; 1 John 3:8.
    4. Romans 8:22-23; Revelation 22:20.
    5. 1 Corinthians 15:28.

    Lord's day: 49 - Question and Answer 124

    Question: What is the third petition?

    Answer: Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. That is: Grant that we and all men may deny our own will1, and without any murmuring obey Thy will, for it alone is good2. Grant also that everyone may carry out the duties of his office and calling as willingly and faithfully3 as the angels in heaven4.

    1. Matthew 16:24; Titus 2:11-12.
    2. Luke 22:42; Romans 12:2; Ephesians 5:10.
    3. 1 Corinthians 7:24.
    4. Psalms 103:20-21.

    Lord's day: 50 - Question and Answer 125

    Question: What is the fourth petition?

    Answer: Give us this day our daily bread. That is: Provide us with all our bodily needs1 so that we may acknowledge that Thou art the only fountain of all good2, and that our care and labour, and also Thy gifts, cannot do us any good without Thy blessing3. Grant therefore that we may withdraw our trust from all creatures, and place it only in Thee4.

    1. Psalms 104:27-28; Psalms 145:15-16; Matthew 6:25-26.
    2. Acts 14:17; Acts 17:27; James 1:17.
    3. Deuteronomy 8:3; Psalms 37:3-6; Psalms 37:16; Psalms 127:1-2; 1 Corinthians 15:58.
    4. Psalms 55:23; Psalms 62:11; Psalms 146:3; Jeremiah 17:5; Jeremiah 17:7.

    Lord's day: 51 - Question and Answer 126

    Question: What is the fifth petition?

    Answer: And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. That is: For the sake of Christ's blood, do not impute to us, wretched sinners; any of our transgressions, nor the evil which still clings to us1, as we also find this evidence of Thy grace in us that we are fully determined wholeheartedly to forgive our neighbor2.

    1. Psalms 51:3; Psalms 143:2; Romans 8:1; 1 John 2:1.
    2. Matthew 6:14-15; Matthew 18:35.

    Lord's day: 52 - Question and Answer 127

    Question: What is the sixth petition?

    Answer: And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. That is: In ourselves we are so weak that we cannot stand even for a moment1. Moreover, our sworn enemies-- the devil2, the world3, and our own flesh4-- do not cease to attack us. Wilt Thou, therefore, uphold and strengthen us by the power of Thy Holy Spirit, so that in this spiritual war we may not go down to defeat, but always firmly resist our enemies5, until we finally obtain the complete victory6.

    1. Psalms 103:14-16; John 15:5.
    2. Ephesians 6:12; 1 Peter 5:8.
    3. John 15:19.
    4. Romans 7:23; Galatians 5:17.
    5. Matthew 26:41; Mark 13:33; 1 Corinthians 10:12-13.
    6. 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:23.

    Lord's day: 52 - Question and Answer 128

    Question: How do you conclude your prayer?

    Answer: For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. That is: All this we ask of Thee because, as our King, having power over all things, Thou art both willing and able to give us all that is good1, and because not we but Thy holy Name should so receive all glory for ever2.

    1. 1 Chronicles 29:10-12; Romans 10:11-13; 2 Peter 2:9.
    2. Psalms 115:1; Jeremiah 33:8-9; John 14:13.

    Lord's day: 52 - Question and Answer 129

    Question: What does the word Amen mean?

    Answer: Amen means: It is true and certain. For God has much more certainly heard my prayer than I feel in my heart that I desire this of Him1.

    1. 2 Corinthians 1:20; 2 Timothy 2:13.